A city that encompasses a rich history
Sirjan, a city of pride on Iranian soil,has been inseparable from the surrounding desert for
centuries. Despite facing numerous challenges throughout its long history, this city has
remained resilient, standing tall like a mighty tree against the winds of change.
Historical background of Sirjan
According to remaining historical documents, Sirjan is one of the most ancient cities in Iran,
with a history dating back to the Parthian Empire period or possibly eve earlier.According to Jean Goharé's 'Khajeh Tajar,' Sirjan was one of the cities of Pars Sea and Kerman,along with Sisron and Ketzias, during the Achaemenid era. Historical writing indicate that Sirjan had ten neighborhoods, each inhabited by a specific group of people. The oldest historical record of Sirjan is attributed to "Ibn Athir, who wrote that Gushnasp, one of Iran's ancient kings, settled in the Tombor Mountains of Sirjan for worship after converting to Zoroastrianism. Sirjan is believed to have been inhabited even prior to the Parthian era, according to historical records.
In Ahmad Ali khan Vaziri's ' The History of Kerman,' it is noted that Alexander the Great
passed through the Store Castle, which is believed to be the ancient site of Sirjan, during his journey from India to Pasargadae via Bavanat. The Sahab Geographic and Cartographic Institute identified the Stone Castle of Sirjan as a landmark to trace Alexander's path from India to Persia, revealing that the distance between Sirjan and Persepolis was 324 kilometres.
Sirjan, formerly known as Shirgan, was identified as the capital of Kerman Province era. It remained the centre of Kerman until the year 935 Ad, when it was renamed Sirjan. During this time, the city prospered to the point where some Islamic geographers considered it more significant and attractive than Shiraz. Distinguished personalities such as Shah-e Shuja Kermani (a philosopher and mystic), Zad-e Separam (a Zoroastrian hierophant and author of the book "Selections"), and Ibrahim ibn Abdullah Keemani (a renowned dream interpreter) emerged from this city.
This situation persisted until the late 8th century, and prominent figures such as Khwaja Ali Hasan Sirjani (a mystic and author of the book " Al-Biyad wa AlSawad") achieved renown in the Islamic world from this city.Sirjan was captured by Timur Gurkani's forces in 1396 AH (773 AH) and gradually declined until the people were compelled to migrate to the village of "Bimeid," located 20 kilometers from old Sirjan. However, around 1175 AH, thanks to the efforts of Mirza Saeed Kalantar, Sirjan was established in its present location.
With its advantageous geographical position, it gradually blossomed and achieved substantial growth, once again hosting distinguished cultural and political figures in Iran.
Sirjan was captured by Timur Gurkani's forces in 1396 AH (773 AH) and gradually declined
until the people were compelled to migrate to the village of "Bimeid" located 20 kilometres
from old Sirjan. However, around 1175 AH, thanks to the efforts of Mirza Saeed Kalantar,
Sirjan was established in its present location. With its advantageous geographical position, it
gradually blossomed and achieved substantial growth, once again hosting distinguished
cultural and political figures in Iran.
Due to its long-standing heritage, this city boasts a collection of diverse Iranian historical monuments, which are still evident in its structures, rendering it a museum-like entity. The architecture of Sirjan features one of the most unique types of Iranian wind-catchers, named "Chapaghīr wind-catchers, built during the first Pahlaviera, inspired by the chimneys of ships that arrived at Bandar Abbas. Furthermore, Sirjan county is home to a plethora of historical and cultural attractions, including the Stone Castle, Stone pulpit, Shah-Firooz Building, Mir Zabir Mausoleum, Twin Icehouses, Sa'idi Historical Mansion, Sangi Garden, and a collection of caravanserais, houses, castles, and ancient towers.
A stroll through these landmarks can provide visitors with a splendid experience of art and
architecture, taking them on a journey through history that lasts for hours. Sirjan is also one
of Iran's most significant cities in the realm of handicrafts, gaining recognition as the world
City of Kilim by the World Crafts Council evaluators last year.
The geographical location of Sirjan
The climate of Sirjan is semi-desert. It is relatively warm and dry in summer, cold in winter, and accompanied by scattered rainfall in spring. The primary source of rainfall in this county is the western air mass and the moist effects of the Indian Ocean. Most of the rivers in Sirjan city are seasonal and prone to flooding. The average rainfall in this county in normal years is 155 millimeters. However, the desert and semi-desert climate of Sirjan, combined with occasional rainfall and strong seasonal temperature differences, has led to a lack of extensive vegetation cover in this area. The mountainous areas of Sirjan are mostly covered with trees such as Tamarisk and Mountain Almond bushes, Archin, Zarach (Barberry), Kushtark, Turbang, and shrubs such as Serisho, Darmoon (Thorn). Of course, the vegetation cover of this area used to be extensive and continuous, but due to the cutting of these bushes by people to produce charcoal for winter fuel, as well as dry farming and continuous use for animal feed, the vegetation cover of this area has decreased. Between the mountainous and plain areas of Sirjan, there are also shrubs such as Qich. The vegetation in this area is diverse and includes various types and species, reaching about 1,000 species.
The location of mountains
Sirjan city boasts two mountain ranges that stretch along the Zagros fault line. The Eastern
range, running from the south of Yazd to the northeast of Sirjan, features peaks such as Panj (3064m), Chehel Tan, Bidkhion, and lalehzar. To the south lies the plains of Sirjan and the city of Shahre Babak. On the other hand, the Western range continues from the Zagros mountains and Passes through the southwest of Sirjan, including the Khajouyi and Ghotoro mountain, sitting between Sirjan and Ghotoro plains. Notably, Sirjan has no active volcanoes.
Sirjan, a city progressing on the path of development
Sirjan's exceptional potential led it to become one of Iran's ten cities to receive a special
governorship decree in 2007, approved by the Council of Ministers. Today, it stands as a
major industrial and mining center, attracting frequent visits from government and economic
delegations eager to witness the city's development plans. Sirjan's bright future is a
testament to its historical significance, which has always been remembered fondly in the
annals of Iran's ancient past.